The Orange Revolution

Kherson, Ukraine - War with Russia
Kherson, Ukraine – Conflict with Russia

As soon as once more Ukraine humiliated Putin’s simple task. On November 25, the Very best Courtroom of Ukraine dominated towards ratifying Yanukovych as President till Yushchenko’s court cases about conceivable falsifications have been tested. On the similar time, the finely balanced Verkhovna Rada refused to acknowledge the election effects introduced by means of the CEC.

On November 27, the events sat down for talks with Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski, EU consultant Javier Solan, The Woman in Kherson, Russian State Duma Speaker Boris Gryzlov, and Verkhovna Rada Speaker Volodymyr Lytvyn. Kuchma insisted that the protesters prevent blocking off the structures of the Executive, the Presidential Palace, and the Rada.

Yushchenko, then again, didn’t backtrack. Then Kuchma determined to lodge to pressure. Overdue within the night time of November 28, Deputy Inside Minister Sergei Popkov ordered a ten,000-strong pressure to transparent the middle of Kyiv of protesters. Nonetheless, the transition of energy to Yanukovych (and thus Putin) used to be thwarted. The Ukrainian military sided with the protesters and adverse the Inside Ministry. The “cleaning” of the middle of Kyiv didn’t happen.

The federal government’s election fraud had created a large rebellion amongst Ukrainians. Mass demonstrations started within the western and central areas hard a evaluate of the election effects. Any other political disaster loomed towards the backdrop of civil disobedience. It went down in Ukrainian historical past because the “Orange Revolution”, in keeping with the colour of the flag and shawl of the principle Presidential contender Viktor Yushchenko.48

The mummy lode of the Orange Revolution used to be the middle of Kyiv – Maidan Nezalezhnosti, Independence Sq., the place many 1000’s of protesters held steady rallies for 2 months. Through the years, this phenomenon got here to be referred to as “Maidan” (an Ottoman phrase) to imply one thing that interprets as “Open Air”.

It began as early as November 21, 2004, when, after the CEC announcement of the initial effects, Viktor Yushchenko and his crew referred to as on electorate to collect within the night time for a rally to protect their selection with out looking ahead to the reputable effects. On the rally, Yushchenko, disfigured by means of the dioxin, rejected the election effects as having been rigged and referred to as for a normal political strike that will no longer disperse till there have been a recount.

As in 2002, a tent town used to be erected on Kyiv’s central sq.. Roman Bessmertniy, a supporter of Yushchenko, used to be appointed because the “mayor” of the Maidan (later, when Yushchenko used to be President, he would grow to be Deputy High Minister). At first, Maidan used to be chaotic however through the years strange voters of Kyiv, after which small and particularly medium-sized industry, bored with the corruption on the most sensible, started to sponsor the protesters. Meals, drugs, and firewood have been introduced in to stay the protesters heat across the fires. An enormous level used to be erected on which opposition leaders and a large number of artists carried out free of charge.

The opposition factions referred to as an bizarre parliamentary consultation tomorrow to discuss the disaster. On the other hand, after all, the Communists and pro-government factions didn’t display up. It proved a tactical mistake of the Yanukovych-Putin faction. At this consultation of the Verkhovna Rada, Yushchenko took his oath as President, which brought about a brand new large wave of give a boost to. Between 500 thousand to one.5 million protesters now accrued within the heart of the capital.

The police and particular forces acted in a moderately impartial and respectful means, and they didn’t reply to provocation. Regardless of the massive focus of Inside Ministry body of workers within the capital, bloodshed used to be have shyed away from. Each side, the opposition and the government, behaved with restraint.

From the capital, the Maidan motion unfold to the provinces. As in Kyiv, the viability of the Maidans within the areas used to be made conceivable by means of the energetic give a boost to of the middle-class businessmen, who allotted other folks and cash for the development of tent camps and the supply of meals and drugs for the protesters.

Regardless of the mass protests, the Central Electoral Fee introduced its reputable effects on November 24 and declared Viktor Yanukovych the winner. In reaction, protesters besieged the Presidential Palace and Kyiv’s central-government construction. To counter those protesters, Yanukovych supporters from jap Ukraine and particularly from Donbas have been bussed into the capital, tenting out within the lawn reverse the structures. There have been rumors about greater than 300 thousand miners from Donbas to Kyiv who would “wipe out the Maidan activists” and save you Yushchenko from coming to energy. In the end, the collection of Yanukovych supporters in Kyiv didn’t exceed 20 thousand other folks. Those have been most commonly miners who have been paid wages and a “touring allowance” for the time they spent collaborating within the counter-protests. They slept in teach carriages situated at the spare tracks of the Kyiv railway station. A violent war of words between the 2 camps and using pressure by means of the government to disperse the demonstrations hung heavy within the air.

On November 27, the Rada followed a solution concerning the political disaster, passing a solution that said that the Presidential Elections have been falsified and that annulled their effects. Whilst expressing distrust of the Central Electoral Fee, it referred to as for non violent solution of the struggle. Within the western areas of the rustic, native governments determined to acknowledge Viktor Yushchenko because the professional President. Within the jap areas, leaders of the Donetsk, Luhansk, and Kharkiv areas closest to Russia initiated the convening of a congress of native councilors to create an self sufficient state and acknowledge the legitimacy of Yanukovych’s election as President.

 

 

The Southeastern Ukrainian Independent Republic

 

 

By contrast to the occasions going down within the western areas of Ukraine and in Kyiv, November 28, 2004, noticed a gathering of all elected officers from the south-east of Ukraine in Severodonetsk (within the Luhansk border area with Russia). It could be known as the “Severodonetsk Congress”.49 The important thing organizer in the back of the congress used to be the governor of Kharkiv, the well known Ukrainian baby-kisser Yevhen Kushnaryov. It used to be attended by means of about 3,500 delegates from 17 areas of jap and central Ukraine and Crimea, together with 159 deputies or a 3rd of the Verkhovna Rada. The purpose of the congress used to be to increase a commonplace technique within the tournament of an escalation of the struggle.

On the congress it used to be argued that if Yushchenko and his “orange crew” got here to energy, deputies of the southeastern areas and Crimea reserved the proper to create southeastern autonomy from the federal government in Kyiv. On the similar time, Viktor Tikhonov, head of the Luhansk regional council, wired that the objective of the congress used to be to create a council of areas with out but stating autonomy, as that query will have to be resolved by means of a referendum. Delegates on the congress have been unanimous in condemning the “Orange Revolution” in Kyiv as a coup d’état, and referred to as on citizens of southeastern Ukraine to battle the “Orange Plague.”

 

Even ahead of the beginning of the congress, numerous area councils followed resolutions to extend their powers over the nationwide authorities. Thus, on November 24, 2004, the Luhansk Regional Council determined to create an Independent Southeastern Ukrainian Republic and appealed to Putin for his give a boost to. On November 27, neighboring Kharkiv Regional Council at the border with Russia invested native govt committees of its personal introduction in its territory.50

 

The Kharkiv Area, caused by means of Yevhen Kushnaryov, stopped moving price range to the Treasury till the political scenario in Kyiv had resolved itself. On the similar time, representatives of the Odessa Regional Council and its town councils introduced their goal to name a gathering of all elected officers of southern and jap Ukraine to make a decision at the proclamation of “Novorosiya” alongside the Black Sea.

Yanukovych, nonetheless just a Presidential candidate and no longer a President, arrived overdue on the Severodonetsk Congress. Borys Kolesnikov, chairman of the Donetsk regional council, used to be the primary to talk and instructed that if “illegitimate” President Yushchenko used to be put in as President of Ukraine, there will have to be a referendum in southeastern Ukraine on a vote of self assurance within the central authorities and on an impartial republic that is a part of a federation of Ukrainian states. He stated, “The placement is out of keep an eye on. Till the very closing second, we have been hoping for a calm solution. However now it’s transparent that this has grow to be basically unimaginable. Now we have a duty to give protection to the pursuits of our constituents. And if we aren’t allowed to protect our electorate, we’re able to go for excessive measures. We don’t have any self assurance within the nationwide our bodies of state, as they’ve violated the regulation. We need to create a brand new southeastern Ukrainian state as a part of a federal republic. The capital of our new state could be Kharkiv.”

 

It used to be understood that the “primary deal with” could be given by means of the governor of the Kharkiv area, Kushnaryov. His speech used to be emotional and seductive:

“There’s no doubt that inside every week a in moderation deliberate and ready, amply financed anti-state coup used to be performed in Ukraine. The usage of the most recent ways in brainwashing the folks, they attempted to coronate a self-proclaimed President the use of any approach, together with pressure… However don’t take a look at our endurance… Now we have our personal resolution to any outrage, together with probably the most excessive measures you’ll call to mind. And I need to remind the enthusiasts with their orange banners: from Kharkiv to Kyiv it’s 480 kilometers, however to the border with Russia it’s – 40! [applause] We need to are living in a state the place everyone seems to be secure. The place our rights, our tradition, our [Russian] language, our historical past, our traditions and our customs are secure. We all know that our jap Ukraine could be very other from Galicia, we don’t impose our lifestyle on Galicia, however we can by no means permit Galicia to show us the right way to are living! We should give protection to and maintain the principle religious pivot that unites us, our religion. We will be able to no longer settle for an approach to life imposed on us, we can no longer settle for anyone else’s symbols, our image is [Moscow] Christian Orthodoxy! Pricey buddies, we need to are living, paintings, create in peace, however there’s a horrible orange risk putting over our nation, over our long run. So as soon as once more I name on everybody to be unwavering, to face tall and protect our selection.”

 

Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, identified for his anti-Ukrainian statements again in 1998 in Sevastopol, used to be provide on the invitation of the congress organizers, additionally sparkled with rhetoric. Identified for being bald and dressed in a cap, he stated:

 

 

Two polar forces are actually at paintings in Ukraine. At the one hand, there’s crude interference in Ukraine’s affairs, and however, there’s Russia, which totally respects the sovereignty of your nation. As mayor of Moscow, I’m able to take off my favourite cap so as to seem like Viktor Yanukovych.

 

 

Everybody used to be now looking ahead to the Presidential candidate to talk, assured that Yanukovych would impress the battle towards the supporters of the Orange Revolution and phone for decisive motion. However his speech upset the ones in attendance who anticipated their chief to be intransigent:

 

 

I will be able to by no means betray you, I will be able to at all times march with you. And no matter you make a decision would be the regulation for me…. Another step and the whole thing will cave in. Allow us to attempt to discover a resolution, with out resorting to drastic measures. If even one drop of blood is spilled, there can be no preventing the tide. Protective regulations and rights is our objective. Please selected the answer that can be sure that the integrity of the rustic and the rule of thumb of regulation….

 

 

After all, it used to be determined to create an Interregional Council of Native Self-Executive Our bodies of Ukrainian Areas focused in Kharkiv.51 The Luhansk and Donetsk areas determined to carry a referendum within the first part of December 2004 to discovered impartial republics. As well as, the Luhansk and Donetsk regional councils, following the Kharkiv one, introduced that the police and different state companies have been to fall below their direct orders and that they’d additionally prevent contributing to the state Treasury.

On December 11, a 2nd congress used to be scheduled to take additional steps to autonomy, however the congress by no means came about. Neither Yanukovych nor the oligarchs round him had a transparent working out of what they in point of fact sought after: to give up or battle, to secede from Ukraine or stay as an self sufficient a part of it, and even to sign up for Russia. Ten years later, in 2014, after the annexation of Crimea, a 2nd congress of the similar regional officers came about in Kharkiv. It confronted the similar quandary, however this time Yanukovych shone by means of his absence.

When Yushchenko got here to energy, felony circumstances have been filed towards Kharkiv Governor Kushnaryov and Donetsk Regional Council Chairman Borys Kolesnikov, because the organizers of the Severodonetsk Congress, accusing them of separatism and “making an attempt to modify Ukraine’s borders by means of aggression”. Each have been imprisoned, however the felony circumstances have been quickly dropped “for loss of corpus delicti” and the prisoners have been launched. However requires federalization and autonomy of jap Ukraine and Crimea in addition to calls for for strengthening conventional ties with Russia changed into an enduring fixture in Ukrainian politics. From being one nation because the Bolshevik conquest of 1917, Ukrainians as soon as once more divided themselves in west (proper financial institution) and east (left financial institution). The political and industry elite of those two portions of Ukraine held opposing perspectives: the will to practice the Eu trail of building used to be towed within the western areas of Ukraine. The will to give a boost to ties with neighboring Russia and create a federative state with self sufficient areas used to be claiming the east.

 

 

Viktor Yushchenko’s Victory

 

 

The Eu Union weighed in at the struggle in Ukraine by means of sending an EU mediation project to Kyiv, in addition to one from the Group for Safety and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), to fulfill with Kuchma, Yanukovych and Yushchenko and representatives of Russia, Poland and Lithuania. Because of this, a compromise used to be reached to “redo” the second one spherical, this is, to time table a brand new, 3rd spherical, matter to ratification by means of the Verkhovna Rada.52

 

The consultation in parliament used to be televised in order that the entire nation may practice the method. Extra abuses and falsifications throughout the elections have been printed: look of “lifeless souls” at the voter lists, i.e. individuals who died however have been recorded as electorate (an evergreen in Russian elections) and so forth.

Prior to the Verkhovna Rada’s vote used to be taken, President Kuchma flew to Moscow for consultations with Putin, whom he met on the airport. Putin had already been wrong-footed when he moved quickly to congratulate his candidate Yanukovych on his victory. After the mass protests, Putin used to be not in a position to govern Ukraine’s election effects as though they have been authentic, and nor did he publicly get interested by Ukraine’s civil struggle. Most likely Kuchma satisfied Putin of the desire for neutrality. On December 3, 2004, having in the past blocked the investiture of Yanukovych, the Very best Courtroom dominated that it used to be unimaginable to decide a winner on the result of the second one spherical, and on December 26 it scheduled a 3rd spherical.

On December 7, President Kuchma agreed to conform to the court docket ruling, in addition to to Yushchenko’s call for that High Minister Yanukovych be put on leave53 and {that a} new Central Election Fee be shaped to supervise the consequences. On the consultation of the Verkhovna Rada of December 8, amendments to the regulations on Presidential and native elections and the Charter have been offered, which set in movement the political reform about which the opposition have been speaking about for goodbye. Parliament additionally licensed the brand new CEC. Kuchma, provide on the parliamentary consultation, signed the regulations in order that they got here into impact instantly. The political disaster looked as if it would were prevented and protests stopped, although Kyiv’s tent town remained.

Twelve thousand global observers got here to the 3rd spherical of the Presidential Elections in Ukraine. Every of the political events additionally had observers at virtually each and every polling station within the nation. The political bloc that supported Yushchenko’s candidacy used to be the coalition “Other folks’s Energy” (uniting Yushchenko’s Our Ukraine and Yulia Tymoshenko’s Native land). The Socialist Celebration of Ukraine additionally agreed to give a boost to Yushchenko. In all Our Ukraine incorporated a few dozen national-democratic events.54

 

Regardless of a couple of makes an attempt by means of the Ukrainian authorities to choose its candidate Yanukovych, one thing that are meant to have came about in the second one spherical came about: the re-vote hung on December 26 resulted in the victory of Yushchenko with a landslide margin of about 8 %. Yushchenko gained just about 52 % of the vote; Yanukovych, simply over 44 %. As anticipated, the central and western areas of Ukraine gave their votes to Yushchenko, whilst the southeast and Crimea gave theirs to Yanukovych. The elections have been deemed to were held slightly, without a important violations.

Nevertheless, Yanukovych filed a grievance, very similar to the only in the past filed by means of Yushchenko, with the Very best Courtroom. On January 20, it used to be rejected, then again, and the CEC revealed the election effects. There used to be normal jubilation in Ukraine, other folks congratulated each and every different at the victory of Maidan, making an allowance for it their private victory over authoritarianism, paperwork, and oligarchy. For the primary time ever, the bulk had in reality gained the Presidential Elections and, for the primary time, Ukrainians believed {that a} new democratic and honest Ukraine have been born. It could practice the trail of Eu historical past and the party-economic stranglehold that had ruled the rustic since 1991 would after all finish.

The exchange within the political most sensible of the Ukraine, and its radical reorientation of international coverage, caused many analysts to speak about a sequence of “colour revolutions” on this planet after 2004. The Orange Revolution in Ukraine adopted the type of the 2000 overthrow in Serbia, when voters fought towards the regime of Slobodan Milosevic, the “Rose Revolution” in Georgia (2003), the “Cedar Revolution” in Lebanon (2005), and the “Tulip Revolution” in Kyrgyzstan (2005). A feature characteristic of those revolutions used to be, except using colour, spontaneity, and the principle motive force of all revolutions used to be the formative years, particularly scholars. All of them started with discontent about the result of elections by which the applicants in energy gained, and ended with mass riots and protests within the nation, till the resistance gained and actual elections have been held.

On January 20, Yushchenko resigned his parliamentary seat. The Verkhovna Rada scheduled the inauguration of the brand new President for January 23, 2005. His inauguration used to be attended by means of heads of state and authorities from many nations. The reputable rite used to be held on the Verkhovna Rada, the place the chairman of the CEC introduced the election effects. The President of the Constitutional Courtroom showed the legality of the consequences and Yushchenko stepped directly to the rostrum and took the oath of place of work for the Ukrainian other folks, striking his hand at the Charter of Ukraine and at the Peresopnitsky Gospels, on which all earlier Presidents have been sworn in. Having gained the symbols of state, Yushchenko delivered his inaugural deal with and the Speaker introduced the resignation of the federal government.

Having grow to be President, Yushchenko and his circle of relatives went to Kyiv’s Maidan the place about part one million other folks awaited him, who greeted him with status ovations shouting “Yushchenko, Yushchenko!” Addressing his supporters, Yushchenko stated, “After the Orange Revolution we are living in a special state – a rustic the place there can be truthful reporters, judges and officers. These days Ukraine is legendary all through the arena. Now we all know that we aren’t best in Europe however that we’re within the center of Europe.

Addressing his son, Yushchenko stated: “You might have the rustic that I didn’t have. And now we have created Ukraine the place none folks can be ashamed.” Yushchenko ended his speech by means of announcing to these accrued within the sq., “I imagine that you’re going to no longer give away our victory!”

 

He visited many puts within the capital that day, the place strange other folks have been looking ahead to him and warmly congratulated him and themselves on their victory. Within the night time, a ball used to be held on the Ukrainian Area to have a good time Yushchenko’s inauguration. It appeared that Ukraine used to be inhaling freedom.

 

 

The phenomenon of Yulia Tymoshenko.

 

 

Was once it an phantasm? Rarely somebody would dispute that Yushchenko owed a lot of his luck to his closest supporter Yulia Tymoshenko. She used to be a political candidate on whom many epithets have been lavished: first of all they have been “Woman Yu” and “Orange Princess” or “Princess of the Orange Revolution”; however, after repeated makes an attempt by means of the government to place her in the back of bars: “Joan of Arc” or even “Countess of Monte Cristo” because of being imprisoned within the Kachanovskaya jail in Kharkiv.

Right through the Orange Revolution, Tymoshenko used to be particularly fashionable. Ukrainians related her and Yushchenko with the Eu long run of the rustic. Tymoshenko’s charismatic persona, her assertiveness, fearlessness, for which she used to be nicknamed “the samurai in a skirt”, made her the mascot of the Maidan. She knew the right way to make an impact. When the general public inauguration of President Yushchenko came about at the Maidan, other folks have been looking ahead to him to reach and greeted Yushchenko affectionately. Somewhat later, breaking protocol, which nobody paid consideration to on the time, the Queen of the Maidan, Tymoshenko, seemed and used to be greeted with much more cheers. Yulia in point of fact appeared like a queen. She knew the right way to stand out, in contrast to her faceless “fellow warring parties”.

Tymoshenko’s biographers word her “forte” as a political candidate. Most likely it stemmed from an excessively tricky formative years, after her father left her and her mom. Her mom used to be a taxi-dispatcher in Dnipro, elevating her daughter as easiest she may, attempting her utmost not to make her daughter really feel deficient. From an early age, “Woman Yu” realized to make her personal choices, to give protection to herself from overbearing boys and he or she most popular dolls over football, volleyball, desk tennis. In highschool, then again, Yulia started coaching in gymnastics and excelled as a junior champion. “The sports activities competitiveness of my formative years got here in to hand once I joined the ‘males’s membership’ of politics.”

 

After graduating from highschool Tymoshenko entered the Dnipro Mining Institute, however figuring out that it used to be no longer for her modified to learning economics on the Dnipropetrovsk State College of Inner Affairs, graduating with honors. At 18 she married Oleksandr Tymoshenko, whose father used to be a well known get together functionary within the town, and at 19 she gave delivery to her best daughter Eugenia.

Within the mid-Nineteen Eighties, on the top of perestroika, Tymoshenko learned that she would no longer make a lot cash as an economist and joined as “cooperator” a Soviet cooperative referred to as “Terminal,” which dealt in video leases. Now not with out the assistance of the Dnipro Komsomol committee, the formative years department of the Communist Celebration (the place the pinnacle of the propaganda division used to be later Kuchma supporter Serhiy Tihipko, who gave her beneficial lend a hand), the younger and enterprising Tymoshenko controlled to open video retail outlets in lots of spaces of town.

So as to not pay taxes to the state, many cooperators registered their corporations offshore or created joint ventures. Cyprus changed into an offshore paradise for such Soviet cooperators. Thus, Tymoshenko changed into director of Ukraine Gasoline, a monopolist in supplying petroleum merchandise and lubricants to the agro-industrial sector. On the similar time, she created a global corporate referred to as Sial, which quarried herbal stone. As well as, she were given a 25 % stake within the Took corporate, the one crimson granite quarry on this planet, and within the mid-Nineteen Nineties, she created the Sodruzhestvo gasoline corporate along with Viktor Pinchuk, Kuchma’s son-in-law.

However Tymoshenko’s primary industry asset used to be her assembly in 1995 with Pavlo Lazarenko, “Lord” of the Dnipropetrovska area, who changed into High Minister in 1997. Her shut acquaintance with Lazarenko enabled Tymoshenko to grow to be a significant oligarch in Ukraine’s gasoline marketplace, ousting her former companions. Her corporate Ukraine Gasoline, reborn as UESU (Ukrainian-British United Power Techniques of Ukraine Ltd), managed 25 % of the Ukrainian financial system. Having ousted Ihor Bakai, some other oligarch with reference to Kuchma, Tymoshenko changed into nearly the only real provider of Russian gasoline to Ukraine, incomes her the nickname “gasoline princess”.

Tymoshenko joined the Cohesion get together based by means of Lazarenko, and used to be elected to the Verkhovna Rada. By way of then her fortune (consistent with the British newspaper The Occasions) used to be $6 billion, making her probably the most tough girl within the nation. An Funding Institute in Poland nominated her even for the identify of “Guy of the 12 months” in central and south-eastern Europe.

The hobby in Tymoshenko by means of males and politicians used to be comprehensible. However she stored other folks at a distance. Some have been frightened of her affect, others of her personality. However public hobby in her as a prime society girl by no means pale. Girls sought after to grasp what cosmetics she used (it sounds as if French cosmetics by means of A-Studio, and Angel fragrance), what garments she appreciated (Chanel and Dolce & Gabbana). Males appreciated how she at all times appeared chic. It solid a spell on many. Her model specialists and make-up artists thus created an instantly recognizable symbol of Tymoshenko nowadays with golden hair and an enduring braid. Odd voters wrote her letters confessing their love for her. However this used to be already a special roughly love, and right here, possibly, used to be the important thing to some other of side of her forte: a love of other folks.

When she changed into an oligarch, the general public used to be serious about her as a businesswoman. When she changed into a public determine, she drew consideration to herself as a political candidate, in a position to conquer her warring parties successfully and ruthlessly. Her speeches, brilliant and entertaining, have been the envy of any speaker. In contrast to her dense-speaking male opposite numbers, Tymoshenko used to be articulate, fluent and intelligible in each Russian and Ukrainian; she stated what the folks sought after to listen to.

Tymoshenko’s forte additionally lay in the truth that she used to be exceptionally bold and conceited. To succeed in her targets she had no mercy, throwing allies below the bus alongside the way in which. The that means of her lifestyles used to be made up our minds by means of the combat for energy, for the perfect stage of energy, for the Presidency. To succeed in this objective, she used to be able to make transient compromises even together with her enemies. However in the end, she labored just for herself, used to be implacable and pushed, irrespective of the place of work she held, by no means forgetting for a second that without equal objective used to be the Presidency. After dropping some other Presidential Election, she concealed within the shadows for some time, however by no means gave up her battle for Ukraine’s perfect public place of work.

 

The put up The Orange Revolution seemed first on The Information.

Cross to Supply
Writer: Andrew Russell

Debate Bot

By Debate Bot

I'm a machine, but that doesn't mean I haven't read the resolution. I see more than a few interesting words and I'm scouring the internet for something you can use in your debates. Nothing is fabricated and the links (generally) take you to the originally published information.